[BIO] Richard Gardiner 1429-1490,

  (or Richard Gardener ) The Lord Mayor, born Exning, Suffolk say 1429 and died 19 December 1489, was married to Audrey Cotton, and was Auditor of London as well as Alderman of Queenhithe, 1469-79. Walbrook, 1479-85 and Bassishaw Wards, 1485-89. Sheriff of London, 1470 and Lord Mayor, London, 1478-79, Merchant Staple of Calais, Was also longtime Warden and Master of the Worshipful Company of Mercers of which he was their patron. Served as the Justice of the "Hansa Merchants of the Almaine" at ye house of "Guilda Aula Teutonicorum", and was the Master of the House, of "Hospital of St.Thomas de Acon". The headquarters of the Knights of "St Thomas of Acre". 


Alderman Richard Gardiner, Mayor Richard Gardiner, Sir William Gardiner, Ellen Tudor, Battle of Bosworth
 Richard Gardyner was chosen as the leader of the official delegation representing the City of London. Riding to the country and greeting his kinsman King Henry VII before they had even entered the gates of the walled city in September 1485. Richard Gardener and William Gardynyr were now riding in close proximity to Henry and Jasper as the procession entered into the city. Riding to St Paul's Cathedral a triumphant Henry hoisted his battle standards flanking each side of the Altar. Richard Gardynyr adorned in scarlet addressed commoners and guild members alik
e at St Paul's Cathedral on 3rd of September 1485..



Richard Gardener, Alderman Richard Gardiner, Mayor Richard Gardiner,

Richard Gardiner was son of John and Isabelle Gardener of Exning, Suffolk and was known as Father of the City of London until his death in Dec, 1489.. He was proceeded in death by his first wife Elyn and his son Ralph as well as his brother William Gardynyr. Richard Gardyner was laid to rest next to his beloved Elyn at St Pancreas Church, on Soper Lane. The Alderman adding a complete wing to St Pancreas in order to construct a crypt dedicated to the resurrection of our Lord, In December 1489 our cities most beloved father Richard Gardener was laid to rest. His Will probated at Lambath in January 1490. 

Battle of Bosworth Commander, William Gardynyr, Ellen Tudor

Alderman Gardener traded in cots-wool and general merchandise rising to master of the Mercer's Guild. Gardener and his kinsman amassed great fortunes in the family business. Having crown monopolies on wool, tin and coal export as well as monopolies in domestic and international commercial money lending and trade. He had personally arraigned the marriage of his now widow Ethelreda (Audrey) Cotton, to friend and Battle of Bosworth commander Sir Gilbert Talbot In June 1490. The man knighted on the field at Market Bosworth with William Gardynyr on 22nd August 1485. Providing Ethelreda a sizable dowry in cash, tenements and estates. The bulk of the Alderman's estate was however left to his daughter Lady Mary Gardiner and her husband the Alderman's ward Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath. Giles and Mary (Gardener) Alington would be 14th great grand parents to both HRH Charles Prince of Wales and the Princes first wife Diana Spencer. 
[ Battle of Bosworth, King Richard III, Sir William Gardiner, William Gardyner, Sir William Gardner, Ellen Tudor, Helen Tudor, Jasper Tudor, Henry VII, Yeomen, Alderman Gardyner, Aldermen Gardyner, Henry VIII, Mercers Guild, Earl of Oxford. Duke of Norfolk, London Mayor, City of London, Walbrook Ward, The Bank, City of London, Bassishaw Ward, Exning, Duke of Bedford, Earl of Pembroke, Cheapside London, London Mayor, Battle of Bosworth, September 3 1485, Rhy Ap Thomas, Mayor Richard Gardyner, Mayor Richard Gardener, Alderman Richard Gardiner, Jasper Tudor, John DeVere 13th Earl of Oxford, Battle of Bosworth, Sir Gilbert Talbot. Ellen Tudor, William Gardynyr, Thoams Gardiner Kings Chaplain, City of London Hisotry, London Banking Hisotry, Hisotry of London Commerce ]






The Rev. E. E. Estcourt, F.S.A., exhibited several documents relating to Richard Gardyner, Alderman of London, from the collection of the late Earl of Shrewsbury, and described them as follows:—

"The most curious of these documents is a Deed of Acquittance between King Henry VII. and Richard Gardyner, Alderman of London, on the return of a piece of plate pledged to the latter for £66 13s. 4c£ by King Richard III., and also of a loan of £100, being Gardyner's share of a loan of £2,400, made by the Mayor and Aldermen of London to Richard III. and secured by a pledge of various jewels. The document was drawn up in two parts, one under the sign manual of the King, the other

T Disraeli, Amenities of Literature, vol. ii. p. 45.
t Freeman and Jones, History of St. David's Cathedral.
§ Nichols's Encaustic Tiles, and Shaw's Tile Pavements.

Under the seal of Richard Gardyner. The portion now exhibited is that under the sign manual, which will be seen at the head of it, and has appendant to it a small mutilated seal of red wax, representing the lower part of a shield with the royal arms, and a plain border of dots instead of legend. This signet seems to be of unusually plain and poor workmanship, to be explained perhaps by the document belonging to an early period in this King's reign. The acquittance with signet of Henry VII. the contractions extended is as follows:—

Richard III, Battle of Bosworth,
This endenture made bitwene oure Souerayne Lorde the Kyng, 
Kyng Henry the VIIth, on that one part, And Richard Gardyner, Citezein and Aldreman of Londone, one that other part, Witnesseth that oure said souerayne lorde hath receyved of the said Richard Gardyner, the day of making of these presentes, a Salte of Golde with a Cover stondyng vpone a morene garnyshed with perles and precious stones, the whiche salte was sumtyme belongyng to Richard, late in deed and nat in righte kyng of England, and delyuered to the said Richard Gardyner by oone William Dabeney, late Clerke of the Jewelles of the said late pretended kyng in plegge for lxvj. li. xiij. s. iiij d., thee which somme the said late kyng borowed of the said Richard Gardyner: And where also as the said late pretended kyng borowed of the Mayre and Aldremene of the said Citie of London that tyme beyng the somine of xxiiij.c. li. that is to sey of euery of the said Aldremene that tyme beyng c.li.: And for suretie and contentacione of the said xxiiij.c. li. the said late pretended kyng leide in plegge to the said Maire and Aldremene a Coronalle of golde garnysshed withe precious stones and many other grete and riche Jewelles, as by a bille endented bitwene the said Maire and Aldremene on that one part and the said William Dabeney than Clerk of the Jewelles of the said late pretended kyng on that other part ther of made more playnly it dothe appier: And forasmoche as the said xxiiij.c. li. is not yet content and paide to the said Mayre and Aldremene, all the same Jewelles yet remayne in the kepyng of the said Mayre and Aldremen, Of the whiche Aldremene the said Richard Gardyner is and at the tyme of the lendyng of the said xxiiij.c. li. was one, and lente his c. li. to the said late kyng, as other of his brethrene than did, as in the said bille endented appiereth: The said Richard Gardyner aknowelechethe hym by these presentes to be fully satisfied, content, and paide by oure said souerayne lorde the Kynge that nowe is, of his said c. li.,~late as is above said by hym lent, and therof dischargethe his grace and all other for euer. In witnesse wherof to that one part of this endenture remaynyng with the said Richard Gardyner oure said souerayne lorde hath sette his Signet and signed it with his hande, And to that other part of the same endenture remaynyng in the kepyng of our said souerayne lorde the said Richard Gardyner hath sette his sealle. Yoven the xxijth day of Nouembre, The ffirst yere of the Reigne of oure said Souerayne Lorde.
King Henry VII

"The salt of gold pledged by Richard III. is probably the same as that described in the Inventory of the regalia and gold plate of Henry VIII. printed in "Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of the Exchequer," vol. iii. It is thus described at page 286:—

Item: A salte of golde w' a cover, borne up w' a Moreane, the Moreane havyng aboute his necke v course rubyes and vi garnysshing perles, w' one that he hath in his honde; havyng aboute the foote xij course rubyes and xij course garnysshinge perles, and aboute the bordure of the cover vj course dyamontes, vj course rubyes, and xij course garnisshinge perles, weyinge xlvj oz. di. [scant].

"This salt is described in exactly the same terms in the MS. inventory of the goods of Henry VIII., belonging to the Society, taken in the reign of Edward VI.; it was probably supported by a Moorish figure, somewhat in the style of an ancient salt at All Souls College, Oxford, which rests on the head of a gigantic man.


Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath
Sir Giles Alington 
"Two other documents, also from the same collection, relate to nearly the same period as the indenture. The first of these is dated the 8th of December, 1st Henry VII. (1485), and is a deed by which John Earl of Oxford, Great Chamberlain of England, agrees to assign to Richard Gardyner, the wardship and marriage of Giles, son and heir of William Allington, of Horseheath, in Cambridgeshire, as soon as the letters patent, granting this and other wardships to the earl, were passed, and in the meanwhile transfers to him all profits and rights over the estates of Giles Allington. The second deed is the formal assignment of the wardship in question, and bears date 4th of May, 1st Henry VII. (1486), and by it he grants him all the rights without any payments to the king or himself, 'except only that the said Richard hath payde to me beforehande.' These two documents both have appended to them mutilated impressions of the same large and fine seal with the earl's heraldic achievements, and the inscription which, when complete, was, Sigilum Joh'is de Vere comitis Oxonie.' John de Vere was the thirteenth earl, who was restored to the family honours in 1464, attainted in 1474, and finally restored in 1485. From the style of the seal it may probably be referred to the later period.
Horseheath Manor

1439, 14 Aug. Florence. —Decree of Simon de Valle, papal delegate, in the matter of Roger Holme's claim to the rectory of Astbury, absolving him from a sentence of excommunication pronounced by the archbishop of Canterbury, and condemning Richard Andrewe in expenses. Fine seal, nearly perfect, representing St. Michael the archangel. See among the Troutbeck papers, infra, No. ii.

1447-1448, —Richard Gardyner Becomes apprentice of William Stevenes 

1449-1450, —He issued from his apprenticeship. 

1450, —He was admitted into the Freedom of the Mercers Company.

1456-1457, —He had an apprentice called Nicholas Fitzherbert

1457-1458, —He had an apprentice called Thomas Edgore

1458-1459, —He had an apprentice called Thomas Donnilton 

1459, 10 “Jenyfere,” 37, Hen. WI. Ledbury. —Testimony of William Skyddemore, esq., and eleven other persons to the declarations of Roger Amondysham, being in great sickness, and of William Collett, lying on his death-bed, as to the enfeofment of Collett in the lands of Maud Fulmor in Estnor.

1461, 17 Dec. —Involved in the gift of all the goods and chattels of John Doget of London. 

1461-1462, —Warden of the Mercers Company.

1462, 24 Oct. Edw. IV. —Letters patent of Edw. IV. releasing John Beauchamp, knt., Lord Beauchamp, from attendance at Parliament, and from holding crown offices, because he is so weakened by age and bodily infirmities that he cannot discharge such labours without peril. Fragment of Great Seal.

1462-1463, —Auditor of the Mercers’ Company. 

1463-1464, —He had an apprentice called William Vowell 

1463-1464, —He had an apprentice called John Whittok

1468, 6 Dec. —Pardoned. 

1469-1479, —Alderman of Queenhithe.

1469, 21 Sep. —He and Robert Drope were elected Sheriffs.

1469 27 Jan, Richard Gardyner, When Mayor he fined one of his Sheriffs, Robert Byfeld, £50 for ^
unfittyng words which the said Robert gave unto the Mair." 
 The fine used for
"the Reparacion of the Condytes"  

1469, 28 Sep. —They were sworn at the Guildhall. 

1469, 30 Sep. —They were admitted before the Barons of the Exchequer.

1469, A fine of lands passed, between John Stockton, Citizen and Alderman of London, Richard Gardyner, John Don, Nicholas Wendover, and Thomas Gurney, and William Andrewe and Isabel his wife, late the wife of Henry de Haliwell, the right of John Stockton.1


1470, 17 May Revocation of the protection with clause volumus, for one year, lately granted by letters patent to Thomas Oxenbrigge of Bekele, co. Sussex, esquire, alias ‘gentilman, alias of Batillesden, co. Bedford, alias of Wyngrave, co. Buckingham, late escheator in the counties of Bedford and Buckingham, staying on the king's service in the company of Richard de Neville, earl of Warwick and Salisbury, late captain of the town and castle of Calais and the castle of Guysnes, on the victualling and defence of the same, because he delays in London, as Robert Drope and Richard Gardiner, sheriffs, have certified.

1470, Oct. Deliberation of the Mayor and Counsel , While Lord Warwick Marches On London
Lord Warwick"s Rebellion 1471
 "Few words, my lord, and I have done," said Richard Gardyner"there is no fighting without men. The troops at the Tower are not to be counted on. The populace are all with Lord Warwick, even though he brought the devil at his back. If you hold out, look to rape and plunder before sunset to-morrow. If ye yield, go forth in a body, and the earl is not the man to suffer one Englishman to be injured in life or health who once trusts to his good faith. My say is said.” 
Sheriff Richard Gardyner, Oct 1470

1471, 5 Feb. A witness to a land charter in Middlesex.

1472, An Elector for London.

1474-1476, Auditor of London.

1474, 21 Sep. 
He was one of those who were elected Auditors of the accounts of the Chamberlain and of the Wardens of London Bridge.
(www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33649)

1475, 16 Feb. 
Present at a meeting of the Common Council.

1476, 21 - 22 Oct. Edw. IV. —Grant from John, Prior of the church of St. Giles of Lesser Malvern, and the Convent, to Richard, Lord de Beauchamp, of the lands called de la Dirsand, alias Derfold, and Horton in Estenore, Herefordshire, rendering annually twelve pence, or one beast called “a tegge.” Fragment of seal. Power of attorney to William Bailye, rector of the church of Matham to give seisin of the same. Seal lost. Covenant by the Prior and Convent that they will make a sure estate should it be hereafter required. Fragment of seal.

1476, 1 Nov. 
—Will of Robert of Claynes, Worc., proved 8 Oct., 1477. —To be buried in the church of Claynes; bequests to his wife Margery, and his daughters Margaret, Elenor and Anne.

1477, 13 Oct. Edward IV, —Monday the Feast of Translation of St. Edward in the presence of Ralph Josselyn, the Mayor, the Prior of Christchurch, Ralph Verney, Knt., John Yonge, Knt., William Taillour, Knt., William Edward, William Hampton, Knt., John Tate, Robert Drope, Robert Basset, Humphrey Hayford, Bartholomew James, Knt., Thomas Stalbroke, Knt., William Heriot, Richard Gardyner, John Broun, Robert Billesdone, Thomas Bledlowe, Edmund Shaa, Thomas Hille, Hugh Brice, Richard Rawson, and Henry Colet, Aldermen, and an immense Commonalty summoned to the Guildhall for the election of a Mayor—Humphrey Hayford was elected for the year ensuing. Folio 130. / Eleccio Maioris.

1477, 28 Oct —Afterwards, viz., on the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], he was sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow was presented, admitted, &c., before the Barons of the Exchequer.



1478, 18 Feb. —Thys yeare, George Duke of Clarence, yonger brother to kynge Edwarde, beynge prysoner in the Towre of London, was there drouned in a barell of Malmesey.

Anno dom. m.cccc.lxxviii. anno xviii. Edwardi quarti,

1478, 13 Oct. —He was elected Mayor.

1478, 13 Oct. —Member of Parliament, London.
1478, 28 Oct. —He was sworn at the Guildhall.

1478, 29 Oct. —He was presented, admitted and accepted before the Barons of the Exchequer.

1478, 12 Nov. —He and the Aldermen made an ordinance that when the church of St.Margaret Patens should become void in law, four secular clerks of repute in the city should draw up a short list of four candidates for the cure of the church.

1478, 12 Nov. —He and the Aldermen passed sentence on William Campion for unlawfully tapping a conduit pipe into his house in Fleet Street.

1478, 23 Nov. —He and the Aldermen made an ordinance regarding the election of Clerks of the Chamber, and the Clerks’ duties. 

1478, 2 Dec. —He and William Philipp, the chamberlain, wrote to the Dean and Chapter of St.Paul’s, presenting Sir John Cheswright for admission to the chantry there.

1478, 26 Dec. Edward IV. —Morrow of Nativity of our Lord, —Acknowledgment by Elizabeth Prudde, Prioress of the house of St. John Bapt. of Haliwell, of the receipt from Humphrey Starky, serj.-at-law, and John Grene, esq. of the annual rent of 20s. from their tenement in the parish of St. Pancras, London, wherein the venerable person, Richard Gardyner, alderman and now Mayor of London, at present dwells. Small fragment of seal.

1479, 16 Feb. —Milo Adys and others appeared before him and the Aldermen and entered into a bond.

1479, 9 Mar. —Diverse tenants of the Bishop of London from Stortford, Hertfordshire, appeared before him and the Aldermen and complained that Robert Byfeld and Robert Harlyng, Sheriffs, had taken toll of their leather and goods, contrary to the King’s writ of 7 February 1479.

1479, 10 Mar. —Thomas Hobersty, curriour and others appeared before him and the Aldermen and entered into a bond.

1479, 10 Mar. —John Clerk and other appeared before him and the Aldermen and entered into a bond.

1479, 16 Mar. —William Ilgar and others appeared before him and the Aldermen and entered into a bond.

1479, 22 Apr. —He and the Aldermen made an ordinance that the Chamberlain should store all building material in the Guildhall and not elsewhere. 

1479, 27 Apr. —He and the Aldermen made an ordinance adjourning all sessions of all Courts in the city before the Mayor or a Sheriff on account of pestilence. 

1479, 28 Apr. —Robert Frogmorton came before him and the Aldermen and acknowledged satisfaction for his wife’s property.

1479, 20 Jul. —He and the Aldermen allowed the Whitetawyers to amalgamate into the Leathersellers.

1479, 30 Aug. —Edmund Worsley and others appeared before him and the Aldermen and entered into a bond.

1479, 6 Sep. —He wrote to Thomas Kemp, Bishop of London presenting sir Thomas Howghton for admission as Rector of the Church of St.Margaret Patens. 

1479, 20 Sep. —He and the Aldermen made an ordinance that, in future, the Bailiffs of Southwark should reside within the borough.

1479, 21 Sep. —He and the Aldermen appointed Thomas Acton as Bailiff of Southwark. 

1479 8 Oct. —He and the Aldermen made an ordinance that Thomas Cotton, Keeper of Ludgate Gaol, should pay £6 for the lease of his house near the gaol for five years, and no more. 

1479, 13 Oct. —Henry Bumpstede and others appeared before him and the Aldermen and entered into a bond.

1479, 15 Oct. —He and the Aldermen made an ordinance that the Leathersellers and the Glovers should search their own mysteries only, to put an end to the strife between them

1479, 15 Oct. —He and the Aldermen allowed the Wiredrawers and the Chapemakers to amalgamate in a new fellowship, to be called the Wiremongers. 

1479, 22 Oct. —He and the Aldermen granted a petition put to them by the Tourners.

1479, 23 Oct. —He and the Aldermen discharged John Curate, fletcher, from serving on juries etc. 

1479, 25 Oct. —He and the Aldermen discharged William Serle, tailor, from serving on juries etc. 

1479, 26 Oct. He and the Aldermen made an ordinance that the Beadle of each Ward should receive 2s in the pound for receiving the money called “ale silver”.
(www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=33653)

1479, 26 Oct. —He and the Aldermen approved certain ordinances for the regulation of the Pavyours.
1479-95, —Alderman of Walbrook.
(The Aldermen of the City of London Temp. Henry III - 1912)

1480, 4 May. —Pardoned of all debts due before 24 January.

1480, 6 May. —On a commission de walliis et fossatis in Middlesex.

1480, 23 Jul. —On a commission de walliis et fossatis in Middlesex.

1484, 28 Feb. —Appointed a Justice for the Merchants of Almaine, who had a house in the City. The German merchants were incorporated, Richard Gardener, alderman, being appointed their justice in picas of debt, Feb. 28, 1484 [1 Rich. III. pt. iii. no. 7, d]. The denizations amount to twenty-two, in less than as many months, (Dec. 12, 1483—July 27, 1485).

Merchants of Almaine

The Hansa Merchant Traders of Almaine, Located in the Steeleyard in London dominated English trade for centuries. "Dowgate Ward - Next to Cosin Lane, on the east is the Steelyard, a place for merchants of Almaine, that used to bring hither as well wheat, rye and other grain, as cables, ropes, masts, pitch, tar, flax, hemp, linen cloth, wainscots, wax, steel and other profitable merchandise. Upon these merchants, in the year 1250 Henry III at the request of his brother Richard, Earl of Cornewall, King of Almaine, granted that all and singular the merchants, having a house in the city of London, commonly called Guilda Aula Teutonicorum, should be maintained and upholden through the whole realm, by all such freedoms and free usages or liberties, as by the king and his noble progenitors' time they had and enjoyed. Edward I renewed and confirmed that charter of liberties granted by his father.

In the 10th year of the same Edward, Henry Wales being mayor, a great controversy did arise between the said mayor and the merchants of the Haunce of Almaine, about the reparation of Bishopsgate, then likely to fall, for that the said merchants enjoyed divers privileges in respect of maintaining the said gate, which they now denied to repair; for the appeasing of which controversy the king sent his writ to the Treasurer and barons of his Exchequer, commanding that they should make inquisition theref;

Before whom the merchants being called, they when were not able to discharge themselves, with they enjoyed the liberties to them granted for the same, a precept was sent to the mayor and sheriffs to distrain the said merchants to make reparations, namely, Gerard Marbod, alderman of the Haunce, Ralph de Cussarde, a citizen of Colen [Cologne], Ludero de Denevar, a burgess of Trivar [Trier], John of Aras [Arras], a burgess of Trivon [Trier?], Bartram of Hamburdge [Hamburg], Godestalke of Hundondale, a burgess of Trivon [Trier], John Dele, a burgess of Munstar [Munster], then remaining in the said city of London, for themselves and all other merchants of the Haunse and to they granted 210 marks sterling to the mayor and citizens and undertook that they and their successors should from time to time repair the said gate and bear the third part of the charges in money and men to defend it when need were. and for this agreement the said mayor and citizens granted to the said merchants their liberties, which till of late they have enjoyed, as namely, amongst other, that they might lay their grain which they brought into this realm inns, and sell it in their garners, by the space of forty days after they had laid it up, except by the mayor and citizens they were expressly forbidden, because of the dearth or other reasonable occasions.


1484, 1 Nov. Rich. III. Westm.   —Pardon to Richard Gardener, alias, Gardyner, under his several titles of merchant, of London, citizen and mercer, citizen and alderman, late mayor, and late one of the sheriffs, of all offences committed before 21 day of Feb. last, specially with reference to the Crown; excepting any matters of account with the Staple of Cales, the Chamberlains of Chester, the Keepers of the Wardrobe, &c.
(Sir William Stanley the Chamberlain of Chester)


www.nationalarchives.gov.uk
1485, 3 Sep. —Richard Gardyner is chosen as leader of the official delegation representing the City of London, Welcoming King Henry VII As he drew near London, the mayor and magistrates, " being all clothed in scarlet," met him at Shoreditch, and the people crowded around him joyfully."And with great pomp and triumph he rode through the city to the cathedral church of St. Paul. . . . After his prayers said, and Te Deum sung, he departed to the Bishops Palace, and there sojourned a season, during which time plays, pastimes and pleasures were shewed in every part of the city." 


1485, 1 Nov. Hen. VII. —Indenture (signed by the King “HR") between Hen. VII. and Richard Gardyner,witnessing that the King has received of the latter “a salte of golde with a cover stondyng upon a moren garnysshed with perles and precious stones, the which salte was sumtyme belonging to Richard late in dede and not in right Kyng of England, and delyvered to the said Richard Gardyner by oon William Dabeney, late Clerke of the Jewells of the said late pretended Kyng in plegge for lxvili. xiijs. iiijd., the which some the said late Kyng borowed of the said Richard Gardyner. And where also as the said late pretended Kyng borowed of the Mayre and Aldremen of the said citie of London that tyme beyng the some of xxiiijc li. that is to Sey of every of the said Aldremen” 100l., and laid in pledge “a coronall of golde garnysshed with precious stones and many other grete and riche jewelles,” as by a bill indented more plainly appears, and forasmuch as the said jewels yet remain in the keeping of the Mayor and Aldermen, the said 2,400l. being not yet paid, the said Richard Gardyner acknowledgeth himself by these presents to be fully satisfied, content and paid by the King of his 100l. So lent. Fragment of signet. (In a small box.)

1485, 8 Dec. Hen. VII. —Provisional grant by John, Earl of Oxynford, to Richard Gardyner of the wardship, &c. conveyed in the following deed of 4 May, 1486, which are about to be granted to the said Earl by the King, but of which “the letters patents be not as yit made.” Seal nearly perfect. (In a small box.)

1485, 8th of December, Henry VII. —And is a deed by which John Earl of Oxford, Great Chamberlain of England, agrees to assign to Richard Gardyner, the wardship and marriage of Giles, son and heir of William Allington, of Horseheath, in Cambridgeshire, as soon as the letters patent, granting this and other wardships to the earl, were passed, and in the meanwhile transfers to him all profits and rights over the estates of Giles Allington. The second deed is the formal assignment of the wardship in question, and bears date 4th of May, 1st Henry VII. (1486), and by it he grants him all the rights without any payments to the king or himself, Except Only That:


"Richard Gardiner Had Paid Me Beforehande" 

These two documents both have appended to them mutilated impressions of the same large and fine seal with the earl's heraldic achievements, and the inscription which, when complete, was,
Sigilum Joh'is de Vere comitis Oxonie.
' John de Vere was the thirteenth earl, who was restored to the family honours in 1464, attainted in 1474, and finally restored in 1485. From the style of the seal it may probably be referred to the later period.

1485, 17 October, 1 Henry VII, —Richard Gardyner I Persons nominated by the Inhabitants of the Henry Colet (Ward of Bassishaw), that one of them \x William Capell Draper.
''Sworn as alderman of the Ward aforesaid, I Thomas Shelley, Mercer, in the stead of Richard Rawson late Alderman there. Of whom the said Richard Gardyner was according to his prerogative chosen Alderman of the Ward aforesaid."

1486, 15 Mar. Hen. VII. —Indenture between Richard, Lord Beauchamp, and Richard Twigge, citizen and mercer of London, by which the former, in the parish of our Lady of the Bow in the ward of Cordwainer Street, delivers to Twigge the following plate and jewels; six bowls, with a cover of silver, gilt, weighing 88 ounces of troy weight, a pendant, a buckle, seventeen “bolions,' a spoon and a saltcellar of silver and gilt, weighing together 16# ounces, a chalice with a paten, a pix with a crucifix, and a powder box of silver, gilt, weighing together 27# ounces, a standing cup, with a cover, parcel gilt, weighing 22 ounces, a low standing cup, with a cover, parcel gilt, weighing 15% ounces, three noses of three candlesticks, three “cupre prykkes,” and one eggshell of silver, weighing together 17# ounces, and one Paris flat piece of silver, weighing 11 ounces; in consideration of the receipt of 962 lbs., “of poleyn wez, gode and merchaunt"; with the condition that if the said lord Beauchamp pay on the feast of Allhalowen next coming the sum of 33l. 8s. 9d., then the plate and jewels shall be returned.

1486, 4 May. Hen. VII. —Assignment by John, Earl of Oxynford, to Richard Gardyner, alderman of London, of the wardship and marriage of “Giglis” son and heir of William Alington, esq., and the keeping of his lands, which had been assigned to the said Earl by letters patent of the King, dated 1 April preceding. Broken seal. (In a small box.)

1487, 24 Feb. Hen. VII. —Impledgment by Thomas Barker to John Skypwith, citizen and draper of London, for the sum of 65l. 5s., of the following plate: a square salt of silver, gilt, with a cover, weighing 35 ounces, a standing cup, plain, with a cover of silver, gilt, weighing 31 ounces, another, without cover, weighing 22 ounces, a flagon of silver weighing 92 ounces, two basons of silver, gilt, with a spout, and arms in them, weighing 174 ounces, a piece of silver parcel gilt pounced, weighing 33 ounces; to be returned if 65l. 5s. be paid on 23 August next.

1487, 2 June. Hen. VII. —Assignment by Elizabeth, widow of William Alington, esq., of Horseth, and others, to Richard Gardener, citizen and alderman of London, of the wardship of her son Giles for the term of five years, with an annual rent of 100l.

1489, 18 Dec.   Died.  

1489, 19 Dec.   Richard Gardyner Writ of diem clausit extremum. (C.F.R.1485-1509 p.117) 
Writ 19 Dec., inq. 7 July, The feast of St. Thomas the Martyr, 5 Hen. VII.He was seised, jointly with William Heigham, clk., of the under-mentioned manor, to the use of himself and his last will. By his last will he gave it to Etheldred his wife for the term of her life, with remainder to Mary their daughter in tail, with remainder to Joan Barton, daughter of the said Etheldred, in tail, with remainder to John Barton, brother of Joan, in tail, with remainder to Katharine Barton, the other of the daughters of the said Etheldred, in tail, with remainder to his own right heirs. 
He was similarly seised, jointly with William Fyndern, knt., Thomas Cotton, esq., John Tate, Alderman of London, and Clement Higham, and Richard Higham, gentlemen, of the under-mentioned lands in Horseth and Shydy Camps. By his last will he gave them to the said Etheldred for life with remainder to the said Mary, Katharine, Joan ‘ and John. ’ successively in tail, with remainder in default to his own right heirs.He died 18 Dec. last. Mary Gardener, aged 6 and more, is his daughter and heir.

Title Henry VII
Volume 1 of Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem and Other Analogous Documents Preserved in the Public Record Office, Great Britain. Public Record Office
Author Great Britain. Public Record Office

Publisher H.M. Stationery Office, 1898

1490, 19 Dec. Richard Gardyner Is laid to rest at St Panceas, Soper Lane, London
"By another document, dated 7th June, 2nd Henry VII. Elizabeth, widow of William Alyngton, of Horseheath, Ralph Hyde, clericus, and Thomas Banyard, executors of the said William Alyngton, grant to Richard Gardiner, a rent of lOOi. charged by reason of the jointure of the said Elizabeth on the lands of William Alyngton, viz. the manors of Horshethe Hall, Stretele Hall, Lymberys, Layes,* Melborne, &c, in Cambridgeshire, and Halesworth in Suffolk. 
"Richard Gardyner was the son of John Gardyner of Exning, in Suffolk, and was a member of the Mercers' Company of London. He was Lord Mayor in 1478, and resided in the Layes, probably Audleys, which together with Horseheath Hall and Lymberys was a manor. 
Parish of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, as appears by a receipt which I also exhibit. By it Elizabeth Prudde, Prioress of the House of St. John Baptist, Halywell, acknowledges to have received from Humphrey Starky sergeant at law and John Greene, Esq. the sum of 20s. for a year's quitrent 'de quodam magno tenemento dictorum Humfridi et Johannis situato in parochia Sancti Pancracii, London', in quo venerabilis vir Ricardus Gardyner, Aldermannus ac nunc Maior Civitatis London', modo habitat.' It is dated the Morrow of the Nativity, 18th Edward IV. (1478); appended is a mutilated seal, apparently that of the Priory. 
"Richard Gardyner married Audry daughter of William Cotton, of Landwade, Esq. and widow of Thomas Barton, Esq. by whom she had children, who are mentioned in another document to be noticed presently. By her he had an only daughter, Mary, who married Sir Giles Allington, of Horseheath, the ward already mentioned. From them were descended the extinct Barons Allington. This marriage is recorded on a monument in Horseheath church. 
"Richard Gardyner appears from his will to have been possessed of the Manor of Westley Waterless in Cambridgeshire, and also of estates called Carbonells and Stistedes in the parishes of Horseheath and Camps. He died in the year 1489, and was buried at St. Pancras, Soper Lane. Audry, his widow, married for her third husband Sir Gilbert Talbot, of Grafton, which accounts for these documents having been in Lord Shrewsbury's possession.

"The last document which I exhibit is a copy of the will of Richard Gardyner; with the probate annexed, showing it to have been proved at Lambeth, Feb. 4, 1489. It consists at present of three pieces of parchment united, together with the probate, by a band of parchment and the seal of the Archbishop. From the tenor of the will it is probable that the earlier portion is now wanting. The abstract of the portion now remaining is as follows:—
"He directs that, after his decease, his manor of Westlewaterle, ( Westley Waterless ) in the county of Cambridge, should remain to Audry, hie wife, for life, and then to his daughter Mary, in tail; with remainder to Joan Berton, daughter to his wife Audry, in tail; with remainder to John Berton, brother to the said Joan, in tail; with remainder to Catherine Berton, their sister, in tail; with remainder to the testator's right heirs. He bequeathed his lands and tenements called Carbonelles and Stystedys, (Cardinal Green) lying in Horseheath and Little Camps in the same county, in the same manner, excepting that the limitation to Catherine preceded that to Joan and John. He directs that Audry, his wife, should have the rule of his ward, Giles Allington, whom he had ordained to be married to his daughter Mary. And if the said Giles should die before the marriage was completed with Mary, then George, the next brother, was to have her to wife 'if the children can so agree;' and should George also die and the marriage with Mary not be completed, her marriage he leaves to the rule of his executors. Should both George and Giles die, and their sister Margery be under age, he leaves her wardship to his wife Audry. 
"The next bequest is a curious one, being of a sum of money to provide a state pall* for the Mercers' Company, and is in these words: 'Item: I bequethe xx marc, and more if nede be, therewith myne executours to do make a clothe of the beste tyssue that they cane bye; and apparell it with frynge and all other thingis that longethe therto, for to remaigne with the commanaltie of my crafte of mercery of Londone, to serue and lye uppone them that bene brethren and sustrene in the lyuery of the same crafte, whan they be deceassed, with myne armys to be sette upone the same clothe, to have my sowle in better remembraunce.'
"He next bequeaths all his gowns, hoods, cloaks, doublets, shirts, caps, girdles, pawteners, daggers, knives, purses, beads, rings, chains of gold, and crosses of gold, pertaining to his own proper wear, to be sold, and, with the produce, stuffs and linen to be purchased to make gowns, coats, and other garments, to be given to poor householders. 
"He also leaves numerous legacies of money to various relatives, viz.: his brother John Partriche; his sister Agnes Lollym (?); his sister Elizabeth Wing; his sister Marion Massam; his cousin Richard Massam; his cousin Catherine White and her children; his cousin William Massam; (Prior of Durham, Prior of Blyth) his cousin Elizabeth Massam (if she be unmarried); his cousin Elizabeth Wynge; the children of William Hamshire, and also of Agnes Rolff of Burwell; John, Joan, and Catherine Bartone, children of his wife Audry; his cousin Jerom Clyfford, 'to finde hym to scole, or to sette him prentice, or to make him a man of religion,' x marcs. He likewise bequeaths x marcs ' to my lady Dame Alice Hamptone.' Then follows a bequest of forty marcs to provide dowries for poor maidens, four nobles each, with preference to his own poor kin; also bequests to his servants and godchildren. The residue he leaves to his wife, whom he appoints executor, together with John Tate, Alderman of London; and he appoints John Heigham, gentleman, overseer of the will. Towards the close of the will is an earnest request to the commissary or official that he would exact an oath from the executors not to act singly, as if he feared some difference of opinion between them.
The Probate Act is annexed, and the whole united by a band of parchment, to which is attached the seal of Archbishop
Notices of similar bequests, and a description of some of the State Palls that have been preserved by the City Companies, will be found in Herbert's History of the Twelve Livery Companies, vol. i. p. 71. No mention, however, is made of any pall of the Mercers' Company.


Great Britain, Henry FitzAlan-Howard Norfolk, and William Dunn Macray. 1903. "The manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, K.G., at Norfolk House, St. James's Square". Report on Manuscripts in Various Collections. 2: 337-347. Pg:296-

1489-1490, —Three several portions, on parchment, of the will of Richard Gardyner, citizen of London, for which letters of administration were granted 4 Feb., 1489.
He leaves his manor of Westle Watirle and his lands called Carbonelles and Stystedys in Orsett and Little Camps, Cambridgeshire, &c., to his wife Awdry, with the wardship of Giles Alington, who is to be married to his daughter Mary, and if the said Giles predecease, then the wardship of his second brother George with the same condition of marriage if they so agree. Amongst many other bequests he leaves 20 marks, or more if need be, to make a cloth of the best tissue that his executors can buy, and to apparel it with fringe and all other things that longeth thereto to remain with the commonalty “of my crafte of mercery of London, to serve and lye uppon them that ben brethren and sustreñ in the lyverye of the same crafte whan they be deceased, with myn armys to be sette upon the same clothe, to have my sowle in better remembrance.” Also, all his gowns, hoods, cloaks, doublets, shirts, caps, girdles, “pawteners,” daggers, knives, purses, bedes, rings, chains of gold and crosses of gold, pertaining to his own power, to be sold for the most value in ready money, to be bestowed in buying friezes and linen cloth to make gowns, coats and other garments for men, women and children, and to make of the linen cloth shirts, smocks and sheets, for men, women, and children, to be disposed amongst poor householders and others, after the discretion of his executors.
His second wife and widow was a member of the Cotton family of Cambridgeshire, who held the manor of Exning. He died in 1489, expecting to be buried in the small church of St Pancras 'where I was once parishioner' under a tomb he had constructed there in honour of the Resurrection —possibly an Easter sepulcre —but allowing for the possibility he might be buried in his home town. Of the torches used at his burial four were to be sent to Exning church. 
Prayers remembered his parents John and Isabel, his son Ralph, and William his brother, but these were said in London. Small bequests went to his 'sisters', Agnes Lolham, Elizabeth Wynge and Maryan Massan, who may have lived near his home town, like John Patrick his 'brother'. He paid for repairs to the roads about 'Horseth' (Horseheath) Lane and Park in Cambridgeshire, ten marks went to the poor of places where he had lands in that county, and another ten marks to the poor of Exning. 
His lands were the inheritance of his daughter, Mary, who he planned should marry the Alingham heir. The future serjeant-at-law, Richard Heigham of Higham, Suffolk, his special friend and 'lover' was his executor; Heigham lived close to Gardiner in London, had a Cotton sister-in-law, and came from a well established family in the Bury area.'  
Gardiner was an executor of Thomas Fabian, also from Exning," but died himself only a few months later. Fabian had taken apprenticeship with his uncle, John Adam, mercer and adventurer, and when Adam died he transferred to John Baker, who had himself been an apprentice of John Adam. There may have been a family connection between them." 
Fabian became a successful adventurer, employing his apprentices as his factors at the marts of Brabant to sell his English cloth, facts known from disputes which arose; he also became a stapler of Calais."  He married twice and left two sons; the mother of his second wife married another mercer, Thomas Goding, who seems to have come from Woodbridge (see above)." Like his friend, Gardiner, Fabian left money to scholars of Cambridge, but in general his will, like that of Gardiner, focused on his life in London, and the prayers he established there benefited his parents (unnamed), and his two masters, his uncle John Adam and John Baker." 
He left £20 to repair the roads between London and Exning, and specifically remembered the parish church of St Martin of Exning, his birthplace, with £6 13s 4d for its repair, 40s for its poor, and a further £10 for his poor kindred there. 
He remembered a Thomas Lolham with twenty marks over and above his wages —he was a past apprentice of Fabian, acted as one of the witnesses of his will and collectors of his debts, and was .presumably a connection of Richard Gardiner's sister Agnes Lolham. 
Another connection of the alderman was John Gardiner a tailor, presumably of London, one of Fabian's executors —his wife, Julian, was left 40s by Fabian, and their children, John and Margaret, another 40s. Unfortunately Fabian linked none of his many legatees specifically with his home town, but some must have been of Exning for he had lands there to leave to his son, Richard, with remainders to his other son, John, his right heirs, and finally, when all heirs failed, to charity."
Notices of similar bequests, and a description of some of the State Palls that have been preserved by the City Companies, will be found in Herbert's History of the Twelve Livery Companies, vol. i. p. 71. No mention, however, is made of any pall of the Mercers' Company.


Great Britain, Henry FitzAlan-Howard Norfolk, and William Dunn Macray. 1903. "The manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, K.G., at Norfolk House, St. James's Square". Report on Manuscripts in Various Collections. 2: 337-347. Pg:296-

1491, 24 April. —Copy of the will of John Welles; to be buried before the image of Jesus in Lichfield Cathedral; among many ecclesiastical bequests, leaves to the fabric of the chapel of B. Mary “in foro Lichf.” 6s. 8d., and towards the building of the bell-tower of Yoxhale 3s. 4d. Wrapped up with this will is a letter from John Fitzherbert to his son-in-law John Welles, written when sick, about an untrue report that Fitzherbert would purchase Hampton Hays in Ridware now late in variance between Welles and John Saperton. Petition from Thomas Welles to the King for a grant to him and Thomas Style, one of the valets of the Crown, jointly, of the Keepership of the park of Highlynnes and the custody of the ward of Yoxhale, parcel of the honor of Tutbury. Copy of the will of Thomas Wellys, dated f. of St. Mark, 11 Hen. WII., 1496; to be buried, if he die in the parish of Yoxhale, where now his parish church is, in the chapel of our Lady before the altar on the south side. There is also a copy of the inscription on the tomb of Thomas Welles, son of John Welles, and Joan his wife, “in ista capella.”

1490 Richard Gardiner, Father of the City of London is layed laid to rest next to his first wife Elyn at St Pancreas, Soper Lane in a tomb the alderman had constructed for that purpose. ^

1494, 24 Nov. 10 Henry VII. [A.D. 1494], —Came Richard Chawry, John Broke, Aldermen, Richard Nonneley, grocer, and William Salford, mercer, and entered into bond in the sum of £273 5s. for payment into the Chamber by the said Richard Chawry of a like sum to the use of Mary, daughter of Richard Gardyner, late Alderman, (fn. 9) when she comes of age or marries. (fn. 10)
(http://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-letter-books/voll/pp313-322#p42)

1494, 24 Nov. 10 Henry VII. [A.D. 1494], The same day came Hugh Clopton, William Martyn, knt., Aldermen, John Pasmer and Roger Grauntoft, skinners, before the Mayor and Aldermen, and entered into bond in the sum of £273 5s. for payment into the Chamber by the said Hugh of a like sum to the use of Mary, daughter of Richard Gardyner, late Alderman, when she comes of age or marries. (fn. 11)
(http://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-letter-books/voll/pp313-322#p42)

1494, 24 Nov. 10 Henry VII. [A.D. 1494], The same day came Hugh Clopton, William Martyn, Richard Chawry, John Broke, Aldermen, Richard Nonneley, William Salforde, John Pasmer, and Roger Grauntoft, and entered into a similar bond.
(http://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-letter-books/voll/pp313-322#p42)

1500, 14 Feb. Hen. VII.   —Indenture of sale to Sir Reynold Bray, knt., Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, by Robert Russell and Robert Wynter, esqs., for the sum of six score pounds, of the manor of Weston Turvile, Bucks., with the advowson of the church, which has descended to them as cousins and next heirs upon the death of Sir Thomas Cokesey, knt. Signed by Reynold Bray.

1500, 26 Apr.  Hen. VII.   Canterbury. —Letters patent of Henry VII. commissioning Giles Daubeney, of Daubeney, knt., lieutenant of Calais, his chamberlain, Richard Nanfan, knt., the deputy lieutenant there, John Turbervyle, knt., treasurer of the said town, Antony Broun, knt., constable of the castle there, Adrian Whetehill, controller there, Richard Lathom and Francis Marzen, to receive on 1 May the half-yearly payment then due from the King of France of 25,000 crowns, in accordance with the agreement made in 1492 and renewed in 1498.

Similar commissions from Henry VIII. to Sir Gilbert Talbot and others to receive the half-yearly payments due on 1 Nov., 1509 and 1510. The Great Seal attached to the first is broken, but the second is perfect. ( Sir Gilbert Talbot was right wing commander at the Battle of Bosworth, Sir Gilbert Talbot married Audrey Cotton Alderman Gardiner widow)

One of the most eminent of fifteenth-century mercers from Suffolk was Richard Gardiner, who came from Exning, a failed borough but a prosperous town on the Cambridgeshire border. 5°He was the product of an apprenticeship with William Stevens and went on to wealth, an aldermanry (an estate of £1000 was the requisite for this office), and the mayoralty 1479-80.

His second wife and widow was a member of the Cotton family of Cambridgeshire, who held the manor of Exning. He died in 1489, expecting to be buried in the small church of St Pancras 'where I was once parishioner' under a tomb he had constructed there in honour of the Resurrection —possibly an Easter sepulcre —but allowing for the possibility he might be buried in his home town. Of the torches used at his burial four were to be sent to Exning church. 
Prayers remembered his parents John and Isabel, his son Ralph, and William his brother, but these were said in London. Small bequests went to his 'sisters', Agnes Lolham, Elizabeth Wynge and Maryan Massan, who may have lived near his home town, like John Patrick his 'brother'. He paid for repairs to the roads about 'Horseth' (Horseheath) Lane and Park in Cambridgeshire, ten marks went to the poor of places where he had lands in that county, and another ten marks to the poor of Exning. 
His lands were the inheritance of his daughter, Mary, who he planned should marry the Alingham heir. The future serjeant-at-law, Richard Heigham of Higham, Suffolk, his special friend and 'lover' was his executor; Heigham lived close to Gardiner in London, had a Cotton sister-in-law, and came from a well established family in the Bury area.' 
Gardiner was an executor of Thomas Fabian, also from Exning," but died himself only a few months later. Fabian had taken apprenticeship with his uncle, John Adam, mercer and adventurer, and when Adam died he transferred to John Baker, who had himself been an apprentice of John Adam. 
There may have been a family connection between them." Fabian became a successful adventurer, employing his apprentices as his factors at the marts of Brabant to sell his English cloth, facts known from disputes which arose; he also became a stapler of Calais."  He married twice and left two sons; the mother of his second wife married another mercer, Thomas Goding, who seems to have come from Woodbridge (see above)." Like his friend, Gardiner, Fabian left money to scholars of Cambridge, but in general his will, like that of Gardiner, focused on his life in London, and the prayers he established there benefited his parents (unnamed), and his two masters, his uncle John Adam and John Baker." 
He left £20 to repair the roads between London and Exning, and specifically remembered the parish church of St Martin of Exning, his birthplace, with £6 13s 4d for its repair, 40s for its poor, and a further £10 for his poor kindred there. 
He remembered a Thomas Lolham with twenty marks over and above his wages —he was a past apprentice of Fabian, acted as one of the witnesses of his will and collectors of his debts, and was presumably a connection of Richard Gardiner's sister Agnes Lolham. 
Another connection of the alderman was John Gardiner a tailor, presumably of London, one of Fabian's executors —his wife, Julian, was left 40s by Fabian, and their children, John and Margaret, another 40s. Unfortunately Fabian linked none of his many legatees specifically with his home town, but some must have been of Exning for he had lands there to leave to his son, Richard, with remainders to his other son, John, his right heirs, and finally, when all heirs failed, to charity."


50 Bailey 2007, 120, 126. Gardiner had no connection with Gardener's manor in Exning, though it may account for the family name, Copinger 1905-11, IV, 160-61. 51 No connection with the Gardeners, clothiers of Bury, is known. His heiress, Mary did marry Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire: Blomefield 1805-11, I, 429. Wills, CWH, II, 591-92 and PROB 11/8, fols 277-80v: L5 went to support scholars at Oxford and Cambridge disposed to read divinity; relatives were mentioned but no places; other executors were Mr John Breton and John Tate, mercer. Heighams: Thomas Heigham the younger was an executor of John Baret of Bury, Tymms, 1850, 27, 36, 42, and served as bailiff of Bury St Edmunds regularly 1438/39 to 1484/85: Lobel 1936, 26-27; Richard Heigham's pedigreeand will (proved 1500) in Howard 1866, II, 213, 254.

52 No relationship with the Fabians of Coggeshall is known. Several Fabians of Exning left wills or are mentioned in the wills of others: Thomas Dere of Exning referred to Alice, servant of John 'Fabyon' the younger, and his executors included John Fabyon in 1449, Northeast 2001, no 429; John Dere of Exning in 1449 had John Fabyon the elder as his overseer.,no. 435; in 1458 John Fabian of Exning [the elder] left bequests to the sons of John Fabian the younger and left a widow Isabel., no. 1480.

53 It would be nice to relate John Baker mercer to the John Baker, clothier of Lavenham 1463-64, Dymond and Betterton 1989, 7, but it is too common a name and no wills survive for the London mercers. John Baker had another apprentice, William Stile, for whom see below.

54 Lyell and Watney 1936, 113-15, 124, 125, 133-34; Smit 1928, I, ii, no. 1856. Slootmans 1985, 766, 1545 (pp. run on).

55 Fabian's first wife, Alice (daughter of another mercer, Richard Wise) was an executor but died, and his second wife, Joan, widow of Stephen Gibson, mercer, took over. For Joan's career, Sutton 2008, 171-73. LONDON MERCERS FROM SUFFOLK 179 

56 He also acted as a feoffee with or for Baker in 1461 and 1466, CCR 1461-68, 100, 400-1.

57 Fabian, PROB 11/8, fols 66-68. See also Sutton 1994, 147.

Richard Gardiner Suffolk

Estcourt, Rev. Edgar Edmund, on some documents relating to Richard Gardyner, alderman of London, i. 355 ; exhibits deed of release by Joan de Beauchamp, Lady of Bergavenny, i. 422; exhibits and presents photograph of fresco in San Clemente, Rome, ii. 142; on a warrant for dress for Mary Russell, iii. 103 ; death and obituary notice of, x. 279,282
(Richard Gardyner - Beauchamp Connection)

Office of the Jewel House
An order under the Privy Seal of Henry VII. in 1485 to the Treasurer and Chamberlaine of his Exchequer orders them to allow to his "beloved cousin John, arl of Oxenford," the sums of 100 marks and 100£ out of his purchase-money of 800 marks for the manors of the late Wm. Alyngton during his son's minority, and the marriage of this son: This, because the Earl had paid 100 marks to Rich. Gardyner, alderman of London, "for so moche money by the said Richard Gardyner late lent unto Richard, duc of Gloucester, late, in dede and not of righte, kind of England, upon pledge of a salt of gold with a cover…the which salt…was delivered unto the said Richard Gardynere by one, William Daubeney, knight, keeper of the juelx with the foresaid pretensed king…. and also the summe of c. ƚi. parcell of xxiiijc. ƚi by the said late pretensed king borowed of the maire and aldermen of our said citie of London … and for suertie and contentaciom of the said xxiiijc. ƚi. the said late pretensed king laide in plege to the said maire and aldermen a coronalle gold garnished with many other grete and riche juelx, as by a bille endented betwix the said maire and aldremen, on that one partie, and the foresaid William Daubeney, then keper of juelx of the said pretensed king on that othre partie thero made, more plainly doth appere.*. [Memorials Illustrative of the Reign of Henry VII, p. 214. (Rolls Series.)]

Sir Wm. Stanley, William Dawbeney late of London, gentleman, & others were attainted of treason for rebelling against Henry VII. Act of Attainder in the Rolls of Parliament, vol. 6, p. 503.

SIDNEY J. HERRTAGE.
Mill Hill, N.W., October 1881.



Another document well worthy of notice is a deed of acquittance between King Henry 7 and Richard Gardyner, Alderman of London, on the return of “a salte* of golde with a cover standing upon a morene gar*nyshed with perles and precious stones.” This piece of plate had been pledged by King Richard to Gardyner for 66l. 13s. 4d.

More important, however, than the preceding section is that which now remains to be noticed. It embraces the papers of Sir Gilbert Talbot, K.G., Deputy Governor of Calais under Henry 7 and Henry 8.

Sir Gilbert stood high in the confidence of both of these sovereigns, and was employed by them in affairs of delicacy and trust. His station at Calais brought him into contact with the Courts of France and Burgundy. Two of these papers refer directly to Perkin Warbeck, respecting whose attempt upon the crown of England it was necessary that Henry should furnish the Deputy of Calais with accurate information; he informs Sir Gilbert therefore of Warbeck’s expulsion from Scotland, of his wanderings. and of his arrival in Ireland. Seven letters in all bear the signature of Henry 7, and twelve that of Henry 8. There are also original documents of Elizabeth of York, Catherine of Aragon, and Prince Henry, afterwards Henry 8, one of Charles 2, and one of James ‘2. There are also three letters in the writing of “Thomas Wolsey," and 13 original indentures respecting the receipt and expenditure of money by Sir Gilbert for Henry 8.

In this division of the Collection occur the papers of an Officer at Calais called John de Houppelines, who at that time filled the post of French Secretary to the English garrison there. Sir Gilbert preserved many of the letters received by this Secretary, and a still larger number of those sent from the Deputy Governor. Most of these are the original drafts in the hand of De Hon pelines, which is exceedingly difficult to read, and the drafts abound in interlineations, deletions, and alterations of all kinds. But the leflers appear to be highly curious, and are likely to reward the trouble of a careful examination. They appear to relate to the transactions between England with France on the one side, and the Duke of' Burgundy and his allies on the other. Along with these occur a miscellaneous collection of law papers, proclamations of the Mayors of Calais, musters of the English garrison there, and others too numerous to be specified here.

These papers appear to be worth ' of a careful examination. They should be arrange and catalogued in detail, and afterwards bound up so as to secure them from further injury.

Title Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts
Publisher H.M. Stationery Office, 1874
Original from Michigan State University
Digitized Dec 4, 2013

1478. The names of apprentices in the craft of writers of the court letter, 26 February, 18 Edward IV, in the time of John Morekok and Henry Wodecok, Wardens

John Wilkynson', Richard Masham, John Forster, John Clyfford* and Richard Clyfford* Thomas Clyfford
The Common Paper: Apprentices and servants, 1478-1573 Pages 12-19

Gardener, Richard, appointed Justice to the merchants of the Steelyard, 211

Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London, Index: A - K
Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London, Feb 1495-1496, Folios 321 -333

These appear to be members of Alderman Gardyners Family In Exing..

Membrane l0d—core*.
Nov. 10. Commission of oyer and terminer to Williain Skypwyth, John Holt, Westminster. Hugh Souche, Jolm Brerton and Thomas More, on complaint by Walter Sibille that Thomas Skeppe, Robert Burwell, John Fabyan, Thomis Burwell, Richard Gardyner, John Burton of Ixenyng, John Chokewold, chaplain, John Burwell of Ixenyng, John Gybbe of Ixenyng, Richard George, John Fysshe, Richard Landewade of Ixenyng, John Sotheman, Williain Brokkeshed, John George, Richard Wolrych, Hugh Fisshe, John v Burghard, Henry Edous, Robert Skot, Stephen Brasiere of Ixenyng, VS Richard Rolf, Jolm Canoun, John Barkere of Ixenyng, John Saunsom of Ixenyng and other evildoers came armed to Landwade, co. Cambridge, and broke his close and houses there, carried away his goods, assaulted and so threatened his men, servants and tenants that they dare no longer serve him. For | mark paid in the hanaper because it was sealed a another time for fine of 2 marks [Exing, Exing, Thomas Moore, Hugh Zouche, John Barton, John Gibb, John Fishe, John Fabian, Richard Landwade, Richard Woolrich, Robert Scott, John Fabian, John Cannon, John Barker]
Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office

DAME ALICE HAMPTON
Alice Hampton was the daughter and heir of John Hampton of Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire (d. before 1471) and his wife Ellen. Due to the deaths of other siblings and the decision of the remaining brother to become a monk, Alice also inherited the estate of her uncle, William Hampton (d.1482/3), a prosperous fishmonger who was Lord Mayor of London in 1472-3. It has been speculated that she intended to become a nun at Dartford Priory in Kent until she inherited all the family's Gloucestershire estates. Instead, she became a vowess. As far as is known, she was unique in that, unlike other vowesses, she had never been married. After living for a time as a vowess at Dartford, Alice took up residence just outside London at Haliwell Priory. She paid the prioress eight pounds of pepper a year for two rooms above a storehouse and two parcels of empty ground. She could also use the prioress's well and washing house and had her own locked door and key to enter the garden beside the convent's entrance. In 1507-8, Alice gave much of her estate to Syon Abbey. Her will, dated May 13, 1514, made provision for Haliwell. It was proved October 4, 1516. Biography: entry in the Oxford DNB under "Hampton, Alice." Portrait: included in memorial brass c.1510, Holy Trinity, Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire.

Westley, or commonly called Westley Waterless, in the hundred of Radfield, and deanery of Camps, lies about five miles south of Newmarket, about eight north of Linton, and about ten east of Cambridge. A manor in Westley belonged, from a very remote period, to the monks of Ely'. It appears, by record, that a manor, in this parish, passed by conveyance, in the early part of the fourteenth century, from the family of Creke u to that of Vauncy, between which families there appears to have been an alliance *: Mary, daughter of Richard Gardiner, was seized of this manor in 1490; in the reign of James I., it was in the Arlington; it is now the Earl of Aylesford's, by inheritance from Charles Duke of Somerset, who, it is probable, purchased of the representatives of the last Lord Alington: the manor-house is occupied by a farmer.
In the parish church, which has a circular tower, is a gravestone, with figures engraved on brass, of a knight, (supposed to have been Sir John Creke, who died in the reign of King Edward II.) and his Lady a.  The Reverend George Varenne is patron and incumbent of the rectory.


Horseheath
The parish of Horseheath, covering 1,922 acres., lies at the eastern end of Chilford hundred, and its eastern edge forms part of the county boundary with Suffolk. The village, centrally placed, is 14 miles south-east of Cambridge and 5 miles west of Haverhill (Suffolk). The northern boundary of the parish runs along the straight ancient road known as Wool Street.  The western boundary follows the road from Bartlow to West Wratting along a valley, and the eastern and southern boundaries follow field boundaries, with a detour to the south to include in Horseheath the moated site of Cardinal's Farm.

The first recording of land ownership in Horseheath is in 1086 in The
Domesday Book, which states that two and a half hides, given by the
King, were held by Count Alan Rufus, a Frenchman who had succeeded
Eddeva the Fair in 1066 and was later created 1st Earl of Richmond.
When he died the ownership reverted to the King and from the late 12th
century most Horseheath land was held by the de Veres, Earls of Oxford,
who retained overlordship till about 1600, with the feudal system of many
layers of landlords and tenants in operation. The largest part, later
Horseheath Hall Estate was held by a succession of tenants including the
de Audley family starting in 1249, whose descendants sold the lease to
the Alington family, who went on to occupy all the manors in Horseheath
by 1550.

In 1611 the overlordship passed to Charterhouse, which was founded by
Thomas Sutton, a Castle Camps man, who had grown very wealthy and
went on to found the school of the same name. TheTenures Abolition Act
1660 abolished knight service, converting all free tenures to socage
tenure, under which rents were paid, and had huge constitutional
significance in terms of the shift away from feudalism.
The names of the manors naturally changed over the 600 years before
individual farms appeared but here are some rough locations:

Bower-hall – north-east of the parish bordering West Wickham
de Horseth – east of the Church
Horseheath – central/south. The de Audley manor house was rebuilt
 as Manor Farmhouse
Limberys/Limburys – south-east around Limberhurst Farm
Carbonells - south around Cardinals Barn (name corrupted to
Cardinals in 1700’s)
Jacobs - around Audley Way
Goodreds/ Goodredges – probably north-west

In the mid-1600’s College farmhouse was built on land owned by the
fellows of Pembroke College. In 1700 the Bromley family, later Lords
Montfort, bought all the Alington land. In 1726 the Horseheath Hall Estate
included, besides the park, 1,000 acres of farmland in the parish, divided
among five farms. In 1770 Limberhurst Farm covered 275 acres; Church
Farm, opposite the church, had 255 acres; Manor Farm with land in the
south of the parish had 430 acres; and Lower Cardinals Farm, by the
Shudy Camps road, covered 268 acres. Later the western third of the
park was added to Church Farm and ploughed up, while the remainder,
mostly left under grass, became Park Farm.

In the 1770’s Horseheath Hall was demolished and Henry Batson bought
the remains of the Hall along with the Horseheath Estate in 1783.
Horseheath Lodge was built by his son, Stanlake Batson in 1800 on the
site of a former farmhouse called Owl’s Hall, using bricks from
Horseheath Hall for the foundations, cellars and garden walls. No
enclosure award was made under the various Acts from 1750 to 1860 as
the Parish was under one owner. The Estate consisted of 2,400 acres in
1872. The fourth generation of the Batson family, also Stanlake, ran into
money difficulties before he came to the age of inheritance, so the Lodge
passed into the hands of mortgagees in the 1880’s and was tenanted until
the Estate was broken up in 1925, when Thomas Wayman Parsons
bought the Estate, but sold off several parts including Church Farm and
later Horseheath Lodge.

The1940’s brought changes in ownership on most of the farms. In 1942
the Haylocks bought Limberhurst Farm, having previously rented it. In
1946 Tony Cornish bought Park Farm, which he later enlarged with the
land from Limberhurst and Church Farms. In 1948 Arthur Marshall
bought Horseheath Lodge, which included a 150 acre farm, where his
wife Rosemary developed a prize-winning herd of Jersey cattle. In 1949
Arthur Tinney moved into Manor Farm, Tom Blackmore bought College
Farm and Jim Blanden took over from his father at Mount Farm. In the
1960’s Manor Farm was bought by the Vestey family. In 1989 Park Farm
including the former Limberhurst and Church Farms’ land was sold to
Alan Covey, who had bought the Streetly Hall Estate a few years earlier.
He went on to buy the remains of the College Farm land in 1990, leaving
no farmers living in the village and most of the farmhouses sold. In 2007
Horseheath Lodge and Farm was sold to Amanda and Michael Chapman
and in 2012 was sold again. In 2014 Horseheath Parish contains 1992
acres.



Hospital of St. Thomas of Acon
Richard Gardener, alderman of Walbrook Ward, and sheriff in 1469, by his will dated the 1st April, 1488, in default of an heir, left the sum of ten pence per diem to five poor men, in honour of the five wounds of Jesus Christ, and to five poor women, in honour of the five joys of the blessed Virgin Mary, the said men and women to be nominated by the mayor and recorder, and by the master of the hospital, and directed that certain lands and tenements in the parishes of St. Bartholomew the Less, St. Michael Queenhithe, and Holy Trinity the Less, should remain to the master of. the hospital and his successors, subject to the above charge.3 It is uncertain whether these houses ever came into the possession of the hospital, but if they did, they were sold before the dissolution. 


Monday the Feast of Saint Alphege, Bishop [19 April].
Gardener (RICHARD), Alderman.—To Etheldreda his wife his lands, tenements, &c., in the parishes of S. Bartholomew the Less,‘ S. Michael Queenhithe, and H. Trinity the Less for life; remainder to Mary his daughter in tail. In default of an heir he leaves the sum of tenpence per diem to five poor men in honour of the five wounds of Jesus Christ, and to five poor women in honour of the five joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary ; the said men and women being nominated by the Mayor and Recorder, and by the Master of the House or Hospital of Saint Thomas de Acon, in manner prescribed. The aforesaid tenements, &c., to remain to the master of the house or hospital aforesaid and his
successors subject to the above charge; remainder in case of default to the Chamberlain of the City of London on like condition. Dated 1 April, AD. 1488. Roll 219 (24). ANNO 6 HENRY VII.

‘ See note supra, p. 329. 4 Or Little S. Bartholomew towards
’ The testator’s directions apparently the Exchange.
ended at the word amen. “ See note supra, p. 513. ' Of Walbrook Ward; Sherifi, 1469.
Al). 1489. AD. 1490.