Warwick Marches On London 1470

During the October 1470 Deliberations of the London Mayor and Counsel, Sheriff Richard Gardener offers sound advice reminding the mayor and aldermen that the city was basically defenseless as Lord Warwick Marches On London. 
Lord Warwick"s Rebellion 1471
 "Few words, my lord, and I have done," said Richard Gardyner— "there is no fighting without men. The troops at the Tower are not to be counted on. The populace are all with Lord Warwick, even though he brought the devil at his back. If you hold out, look to rape and plunder before sunset to-morrow. If ye yield, go forth in a body, and the earl is not the man to suffer one Englishman to be injured in life or health who once trusts to his good faith. My say is said.” 
Sheriff Richard Gardyner, Oct 1470

The Keys To The Kingdom

William Gardynyr - Ellen Tudor
  Luminaries of the research field in there infinite wisdom have time and again missed some of the major keys to the Battle of Bosworth, and the subsequent rise of the Tudor dynasty. Seemingly unable to accept a common skinner dealt the mortal blow, has lead to hundreds of years of the most fanciful mix of unsubstantiated second hand accounts. All supported on a mountains of speculation, surrounding the events leading up to the battle of Market Bosworth and the subsequent rise of the Tudor dynasty. Magnifying minor parts of the story and attempting to discredit any scenario that does not support a biased version of events that paint Richard as anything less than a misunderstood hero. Yet still to this day, are still unable to adequately explain how a rag tag band of rebels defeated a King with an army twice it's size, and had laid claim the thrown of England for over a 100 years?

  In their haste have they overlooked the keys to the Kingdom if you will? The union of the House of Tudor and the Gardener family was one major key to that Kingdom, and foundation of the Tudor dynasties rise to power. The marriage of Jasper's Tudors only daughter Ellen to William the kinsman of one of the most powerful alderman in England, set the stage for a series of events the changed the course of history.

  William Gardiner wasn't just some out of place common skinner who haphazardly found his way on to the battlefield just outside Market Bosworth in 1485. The man who was then subsequently found on the field with Richards crown. William Gardyner was managing the logistics of Jasper's army as it made it's way through England.  Sir Wyllyam Gardynyr was kinsman of the Father of the City of London.

  Alderman Richard Gardiner like his peers was considered one of the most powerful and wealthy men in England. Historians like to gloss over this fact. It almost seems as if historians are also unaware that on the 3rd September 1485, William Gardeners kinsman and Father of the City of London Richard Gardener, The man who was chosen as the The City of London's official representative, riding to the countryside to greet the newly crowned King before he'd even entered the city walls. Gardener and the common counsel organized the cities festivities welcoming King Henry VII to London.

King Henry VII - Aldermen Richard Gardiner - September 3rd 1485
The above lithograph of  appears to be Alderman Richard Gardener and HRH King Henry VII, was copied from a tapestry in Henry VIIs Lady Chapel and Chantry at Westminster Abbey. The son of Sir William Gardiner and Ellen Tudor, The young boy removed by the crown for his own safety. Thomas Gardener was made the head priest of King Henry VIIs Lady Chapel. At the time hailed as the most sumptuous lady chapel in all of Christendom, it was dedicated by the King Slayers son Thomas Gardener who sang it's first mass.
  The Father of the City of London Richard Gardiner and his kinsman were handling the logistics of Henry's invasion in England. Few men were better suited than Alderman Gardiner for Jasper Tudor to align with. The Alderman being justice of the Mercers Guild, Staple of England Merchant, Staple of Calais Merchant as well as Justice of the Hans Merchants of the Almaine, Aldermen Gardener had direct control of the lines communication not only through the entire realm. but to the Low Countries, France, Burgundy, Brittany and the Maine of the Holy Roman Empire. The merchants having their own mercenary army's and navy's already in service and experienced in the security and transportation of their trade merchandise stored in their own respective merceries at home and abroad. Including the mercenaries, materials and money that were all at merchant Gardiner's disposal, and the key to Henry and Jaspers victory. All of the men and logistical materials necessary to supply an army. One of the first armies on the battlefield where plunder was "not" the pay. 

  We know William Gardiner was found with Richards crown and was knighted on the field with Sir Gilbert Talbot, Rhys ap Thomas and Humphrey Stanley. Why had history has not remembered Sir William Gardynyer~? The reasons are many foremost would be the yet  fully substantiated story of William Gardiner being killed by Yorkist supporters of King Richard days before Henry's coronation HRH King Henry VII at Westminster Abbey. Causing panic, his children were ordered removed and placed in the custody of the crown with other members of the royal family for their own safety. People still wondering why the knights during the period were not clamoring to take credit for the deed? Rhys ap Thomas spoke directly to the historian Polydore Vergil and did not take credit for the deed. It was Richard Gardyner who communicated the the new King's wishes and expectations to the guilds and commoners who had made their way to St Paul's Cathedral on the day of Henry VIIs coronation at Westminster Abbey. Regicide was not ever fashionable and in the case of William Gardynyr being murdered leaving the mayden of the hoope (tavern) near the Poultry Cross on the Cheapside poignantly reminded everyone involved the battle for the total control of the realm was far from over.

  One only has to look at the logistics of the battle, and the "how" of Richard the IIIs defeat at Bosworth Market in 1485 quickly becomes apparent, even to the novice researcher. Richard's defeat wasn't a fluke or a lucky win by Henry and Jasper Tudor it wasn't even a the Stanley brothers swoop in and decide the battle story.  It was a carefully orchestrated coup d'etat that was laid out over a period of some years with great skill and cunning. Despite stories to the contrary King Richard was lead to a preplanned slaughter on a field Henry Tudor chose months before the battle.   One thing is sure. Without the support of the Alderman Gardyner, the merchants and their considerable logistical resources, Jasper Tudor and his ward may have just been footnotes in a history replete with nobles attained for treason. Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, Ellen Tudor, Ellen Teddor, Elyn Teddor, Elyn Tedor, Elyn Tudor, Sir William Gardiner, Sir William Gardynyr, John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, 13th Earl of Oxford,  Battle of Bosworth, Mercenaries Battle of Bosworth 1485, 

David Todd Gardner is a full time researcher who hails from Louisiana, With 30 experience using modern research methods. Gardner has uncovered and collected a compelling knowledge of obscure historical facts relating to the genealogical history of the Gardner, Gardiner, Gardyner, Gardener families and their related kinsman.
Dave can be reached at: gardnerflorida@gmail.com 

Arms - Shield, William Gardiner, and Ellen Tudor

Be Yt Notid that Saint Oswyn, Kyng of Daire, in latyn written Rex Dareorum, founded furst the Monasteri of Tynmouth of Blak Monkes. And within certeyn yeres of his foundacion the Danys dystroied the said monastery, and so contynowed longe on edified, untill the tyme of the Conquerors commyng. And then Robert Mowbray, Erie of Northumberland, whiche cam in with the Conquerour, edified and founded the said Monastery of Tynmouth ageyn. And so he and hys yssue arn founders of the said monastery, of whom ys dyscendyd the right high and myghti prince, Thomas Duke oNorfolk.
ARMS.  Gules, three crowns or.
These Be The Abmes of my Lord The Priour Of Tynmouth' whose name ys Gardener. And the said Priour ys descendyd of the noble Quene Kateryn, wyfe to Kyng Henry the Vth, and doughter to Charles Kyng of France. For the said Quene Kateryn was after maryed to Owayn Teddur, by whom he had yssue Edmond Erie of Richemond, and Jasper Duke oBedford. Whiche Jasper begate a bastard doughter called Ellen, maryed Willyam Gardener, who was father to my said Lord Priour. 
able, a chevron between three bugle horns argent, stringed and mounted or.  
Be Yt Notid that Malcolyn Kyng OScotland was slayne at Andewik by Robert Mowbray, Erie oNorthumberland, and Foundour of Tynmouth. And the said Malcolyn lyeth buried in the said Monastery of Tynmouth, in the Chapiter House 
Sable, a chevron between three bugle horns argent, stringed and mounted or. /  Impalement. England, debruised by a bend sinister [untinctured], within a border azure charged with eleven martlets or.  
Be Yt Notid that the said Priour Of Tynmouth hath geven unto me, Norrey Kyng of Armes of the North parties, this pedigre and armes of his awne reporte, whiche he woll offerme at all tymes to verefy and approve before the Kyng and his Counsaill, that this pedigre is true and the armes also.
~ Sir Thomas Tonge

[ Ellen Tudor, Helen Tudor, William Gardiner, Wyllyam Gardynyr, Elyn Tudor, Battle of Bosworth, Earl of Pembroke, Duke of Bedford, Jasper Tudor, Owen Tudor, Jasper Tudor Battle of Bosworth, William Gardner Ellen Tudor, William Gardener Ellen Tudor, William Gardner Ellen Tudor, Helen Tudor, Elyn Teddur, Elyn Tidder, Duke of Bedford, Jasper Tudor, Owen Tudor, Jasper Tudor Family Tree, King Charles III, HRH King Charles III, Prince Charles,  King Charles, Queen Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall  ]

Battle of Bosworth - Gardiner


Having now spent much time over three decades looking into the life of the Gardiner family of central London, and their relation to events surrounding the Battle of Bosworth and the rise of the Tudor Dynasty. It never ceases to amaze me how much of our combined family histories have just been lost to the ravages of time. From then, to our current time, where the summation of human knowledge now doubles approximately every six months. Questions once asked in times past with seemingly no answer? Asked again in the 21st century, have yielded surprising answers. Applying modern research methods has allowed us to reconstruct the lives of some of our amazing family members once thought to be lost.

This series also appears in the Winter 2016 Edition of the Gardner Annals from the Thomas Gardner Society, they can be found at
Gardiner - Tudor
The Gardiner family appears to have played an even more significant role in the events surrounding Richard III and the Battle of Bosworth than was once thought. Sir William Gardyner, was far from being an unlikely out of place skinner on the battlefield at Market Bosworth, William Gardner was actually son-in-law of Jasper Tudor. The few stories of Richard III’s death in August 1485 in a field just south of Market Bosworth are well known. What was not known? Several things: The more complex relationships with the Gardiner family and major players of the battle as well the families early connections to the Royal Family prior to the rise of Bishop Stephen Gardiner, Lord Chancellor of England. 

What we know about Sir William Gardyner who was found with Richard IIIs crown at the battle of Bosworth has taken some very interesting twists and turns. We’ve uncovered some previously unknown connections, Information unpublished in modern times and some little known facts that support our story of Sir William Gardyner and the family’s larger role in the English Civil War. As well as, the Gardiner families rise to power as part of the Tudor Dynasty.
King Charles III, Charles III, HRH Charles, King Charles, King of England, King of  United Kingdom, Britain, United Kingdon, UK ]

New Information

King Henry VII - Alderman Richard Gardiner 
Richard Gardyner, Sheriff, Mayor, Alderman and Father of the City of London was chosen as the official representative of the city of London, The Aldermen and Common Council directed celebrations to welcome the new King to the City. Alderman Gardiner rode out of London to meet Henry Tudor before he arrived in the city. The Aldermen joined the King's procession as it entered the city walls.

This supports my own position that it was Alderman Gardyner directing the logistics of Henry VIIs theater of operations in England.

Image result for sir gilbert Talbot
Sir Gilbert Talbot
Alderman Richard Gardiner’s arrainged the marrage of his widow Etheldreda (Audrey) Cotton, William Gardiner’s sister in law, to marry King Henry’s right wing commander at Battle of Bosworth, Sir Gilbert Talbot some years after the Alderman's death. Only William Gardyner, Sir Gilbert Talbot, Rhys ap Thomas and Humphrey Stanley were knighted on the field of Battle. The connection of Henry and Jasper as well as Army Commander Earl of Oxford and the Armies Right Wing Commander, Sir Gilbert Talbot to the Gardyner's is significant. This puts Sir William Gardyner not only as Jasper Tudors son in law. It has Sir Wyllyam Gardynyr in the right place, right time and right circumstance to have dealt the mortal blow to Richard III on the Battlefield at Market Bosworth in 1485. 

It's would not be a stretch to deduce the man who dealt the mortal blow? Is the man who picked up the crown and was Knighted on the field. If we measure the deed by treasure and the continued trust of both HRH King Henry VII and Henry VIII? One could surmise, Sir William Gardyner was indeed the man who dealt the mortal blow. Henry gave Rhys ap Thomas and Humphrey Stanley Title and Land. The King entrusted Thomas Gardiner King’s Chaplain the son of Sir William Gardiner with not only his own mortal soul, but the souls of his family and Heir apparent. While elevating other members of the Gardiner family to some of the most powerful and influential positions in England. 

Battle of Bosworth 1485

This endenture made bitwene oure Souerayne Lorde the Kyng,
Kyng Henry the VIIth, on that one part, And Richard Gardyner, Citezein and Aldreman of Londone, one that other part, Witnesseth that oure said souerayne lorde hath receyved of the said Richard Gardyner, the day of making of these presentes, a Salte of Golde with a Cover stondyng upone a morene garnyshed with perles and precious stones, the whiche salte was sumtyme belongyng to Richard, late in deed and nat in righte kyng of England, and delyuered to the said Richard Gardyner by oone William Dabeney, late Clerke of the Jewelles of the said late pretended kyng in plegge for lxvj. li. xiij. s. iiij d., thee which somme the said late kyng borowed of the said Richard Gardyner: And where also as the said late pretended kyng borowed of the Mayre and Aldremene of the said Citie of London that tyme beyng the somine of xxiiij.c. li. that is to sey of euery of the said Aldremene that tyme beyng c.li.: And for suretie and contentacione of the said xxiiij.c. li. the said late pretended kyng leide in plegge to the said Maire and Aldremene a Coronalle of golde garnysshed withe precious stones and many other grete and riche Jewelles, as by a bille endented bitwene the said Maire and Aldremene on that one part and the said William Dabeney than Clerk of the Jewelles of the said late pretended kyng on that other part ther of made more playnly it dothe appier: And forasmoche as the said xxiiij.c. li. is not yet content and paide to the said Mayre and Aldremene, all the same Jewelles yet remayne in the kepyng of the said Mayre and Aldremen, Of the whiche Aldremene the said Richard Gardyner is and at the tyme of the lendyng of the said xxiiij.c. li. was one, and lente his c. li. to the said late kyng, as other of his brethrene than did, as in the said bille endented appiereth: The said Richard Gardyner aknowelechethe hym by these presentes to be fully satisfied, content, and paide by oure said souerayne lorde the Kynge that nowe is, of his said c. li.,~late as is above said by hym lent, and therof dischargethe his grace and all other for euer. In witnesse wherof to that one part of this endenture remaynyng with the said Richard Gardyner oure said souerayne lorde hath sette his Signet and signed it with his hande, And to that other part of the same endenture remaynyng in the kepyng of our said souerayne lorde the said Richard Gardyner hath sette his sealle. Yoven the xxijth day of Novembre, The ffirst yere of the Reigne of oure said Souerayne Lorde.
King Henry VII

We find payments from both HRH King Henry 7th and John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford to Alderman Richard Gardyner that look as if to be reimbursements for expenses the Alderman incurred while handling the logistics of Henry and Jasper's prior to the Army's arrival in England. However, these payments seemed to use the recovery of some of the crown jewels pawned by Richard III as a way to disguise these arrangements. The payments in the case of The Earl of Oxford are noted as off-the-book, uncategorized payments and unlike anything researchers had encountered before.

1485, 8 Dec. Hen. VII. —Provisional grant by John, Earl of Oxynford, to Richard Gardyner of the wardship, &c. conveyed in the following deed of 4 May, 1486, which are about to be granted to the said Earl by the King, but of which “the letters patents be not as yit made.” Seal nearly perfect. (In a small box.)
13th Earl of Oxforde
John de Vere

1485, 8th of December, Henry VII. —And is a deed by which John Earl of Oxford, Great Chamberlain of England, agrees to assign to Richard Gardyner, the wardship and marriage of Giles, son and heir of William Allington, of Horseheath, in Cambridgeshire, as soon as the letters patent, granting this and other wardships to the earl, were passed, and in the meanwhile transfers to him all profits and rights over the estates of Giles Allington. The second deed is the formal assignment of the wardship in question, and bears date 4th of May, 1st Henry VII. (1486), and by it he grants him all the rights without any payments to the king or himself,
"Except Onlt That Richard Gardyner Had Paid Me Beforehand"

These two documents both have appended to them mutilated impressions of the same large and fine seal with the earl's heraldic achievements, and the inscription which, when complete was,
"Sigilum Joh'is de Vere comitis Oxonie"

John de Vere was the thirteenth Earl of Oxforde; was restored to the family honours in 1464, attained in 1474, and finally restored in 1485. Elevated to Lord Great Chamberlain of England.

Most are unaware of the significance of the above document. Giles Alington son of Richard IIIs slain vanguard soldier, Sir William Alington and the now the Alderman's ward. Married Alderman Gardiner’s daughter Mary. Notable descendants of Sir Giles Alington and Lady Mary Gardiner include HRH Charles, Prince of Wales as well as the Prince's first wife, the late Lady Diana Spencer.

Continuing Work

Moving forward in this series we’ll explore the life of Sir William Gardiners and Lady Ellen Tudors only son, Thomas Gardiner, King’s Chaplain Son and Heir. Chamberlain of Westminster Abbey.

Foot Notes

  • Names (keyword): Richard Gardyner, Richard Gardener, Richard Gardyner, William Gardyner, William Gardener, William Gardyner, William Gardynyr, Wyllyam Gardynyr, Ellen Tudor, Hellen Tudor, Ellen Tuwdr, Alderman Richard Gardyner, Alderman Gardyner, Earl of Oxforde, Richarde Gardyner, Gilbert Talbot, Humphrey Stanley, Rhys ap Thomas, Battle of Bosworth, Battle of Market Bosworth, Mayre Richard Gardyner, Aldremene Richard Gardyner, Battle of Bosworth, Battle of Market Bosworth, Market Bosworth, Sir Thomas Gardiner, ir Giles Alington, Sir Giles Allington,

David T Gardner is a descendant of the Gardner family who arrived from Purton, Wiltshire to West Jersey, now Philadelphia in 1682. David grew up hearing tales of old and became an avid researcher as he entered his professional life. David’s work aligns with the emphasis on “All things Gardner” of Gardner Research (thomasgardnersociety.org) and has graciously provided material and discussion related to research of whence Thomas Gardner and Margaret Fryer. David can be reached by email at gardnerflorida@gmail.com or via his blog at wyllyam.kingslayerscourt.com

Sir William Gardiner 1485

Battle of Bosworth 1485
  (or William Gardyner) 1432-1485 is the Knight who has been alleged by some to have delivered the mortal blow, killing King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. King Richard III was the last English King killed in Battle. Wyllyam Gardynyr, Sir Gilbert Talbot, Rhys ap Thomas and Humphrey Stanley were Knighted. The Royal Families Yeoman of the Guard, The Royal Body Guards, England's oldest military order, was formed on the battlefield that day. William Gardyner was elevated to Knight. Wyllyam Gardynyr was found with King Richards III Crown, and this has lead to generations of speculation and claims. Did a common skinner deliver the mortal blow? Had some free lance mercenary actually killed the last English King killed in battle? Did Wyllyam Gardynyr strike the King in the head with a Poleaxe when the King and his horse had become mired in a bog? [ Sir William Gardiner, Sir William Gardynynr, Sir William Gardener, Ellen Tudor, William Gardiner Battle of Bosworth ]

  When the Battlefield south of Bosworth Market was finally discovered in 2009. It wasn't high a top Albion~? The battle occurred in a low boggy area.. Not long after King Richards body after being lost for 527 years, was located and recovered from the Church of the Greyfriars in 2012. One of the most extensive forensic examinations ever undertaken, was completed by the University of Leicester. The cause of death was determined to have been a blow to the head, consistent with a Poleaxe (Gruesome Details. King Richard III's Death) and also consistent with the story of William Gardner. Thus appearing to confirm early Welsh accounts of the Battle. Tales told long before Richards body was discovered, in an era before the Internet.. The tale of Sir William, the forensic evidence collected from Richards body, and genealogical analysis documented here. Shines some new light on the death of King Richard III..

 "Rhys ap Thomas troops found Richard’s crown in the hands of William Gardyner and brought it to Henry. Henry knighted William Gardyner, Gilbert Talbot, Humphrey Stanley and Rhys ap Thomas on the battlefield as well as a number of his captains. It is to be noted that neither Thomas nor William Stanley were honoured. All present cried ‘God save King Henry’. He was then crowned with Richard’s crown – that is, the coronet from Richard’s helmet – by Thomas Stanley. Traditionally, he is said to have been crowned on the hill now known as Crown Hill, on the slopes of which the Stanley's were probably stationed when Richard was finally struck down. The hawthorn was to feature in heraldry for Henry Tudor from the beginnings of his reign." (Breverton (2014) Jasper Tudor)
  Stories many families have passed generation to generation. Tales told by my English ancestors, Traders who landed on the Welsh Tract of  West Jersey in 1682. Children's bedtime stories (Rhyme of Sir Christopher Gardyner, Harper's vol 66), Tales of Lords, Ladies, Kings, Great Battles and Better Times in England.  Have ultimately stood the test of time. Many stories lost to time in England have been rediscovered in remote parts of the empire applying modern research methods. 

The Gardiner family in the story of King Richard and the War of the Roses are often written off as common skinners at best, and even foreign mercenaries, flee-lancers or worse. The Gardyner family may have been many things. Common? Just wasn't one of them. Far from playing a minor roll in the story of King Richard III? The Gardyner family and their kinsman, appear to be one of the key players in the death of the last English King killed in battle, King Richard III.  

  William Gardyner was indeed married to Eleanor Tudor the natural daughter of the Tudor King maker, Jasper Tudor Duke of Bedford. William Gardyner appears to be the kinsman of Richard Gardyner Father of the City of London. Who was a powerful London Aldermen, Mayor and Sheriff. Alderman Richard Gardiner at the time, like his fellow Alderman? Would have been considered one of the most wealthy and powerful men on Earth.  Alderman Gardyner was selected official representative of City of London, riding out to meet newly crowned Henry VII before he entered London's city gates. I imagine Sir William Gardiner was now riding in close proximity to the New King.

  William's kinsman Alderman Gardiner was married to Audrey Cotton. Granddaughter of the highly regarded Sir William Cotton Knight, Vice Chamberlain, Keeper of the Wardrobe, Receiver to the Queen, Captain of the Guard and Protector of the Body to King Henry VI, Sir William Cotton was killed at the first Battle of Albans in 1455. (War of the Roses, Luminarium) "The Archers of the Yorkist Duke of Somerset shot at the men around the King", Killing Sir William Cotton and several others. "The King and the Duke of Buckingham were injured",.

  It must be noted only William Gardiner who was found with Richards Crown and, Gilbert Talbot, commander of the right wing of Henry Tudors army, Rhy ap Thomas and Humphrey Stanley were knighted on the field immediately after the battle. The Stanley's were left behind to clean up the scene of the battle. Alderman Richard Gardyner makes hasty arrangements for his widow Audrey Cotton to marry Henry Sevens right wing commander at Bosworth Sir Gilbert Talbot upon his death.  Most people are unaware the De Veres - Stanleys - Gardeners - Cottons had estates at Exning.   

  Most importantly and key to this story? William Gardiner's son and Jasper Tudors grandson, Thomas Gardiner is, "King's chaplain, son and heir, born in London say 1479", ( Personal Chaplin to King Henry VII and King Henry VIII ) [Chamberlain Westminster Abby, Prior Blyth, Lifetyme Appointment Pryor Tynemouth],  Thus also apparently giving us clues as to why Steven Gardyner and Germane Gardyner (as in germane to the case) enjoyed a close relationship with Henry VIII. Because they were all indeed cousins through William Gardiner and his brothers. [Battle of Bosworth, King Richard III, Sir William Gardiner, William Gardyner, Ellen Tudor, Helen Tudor, Jasper Tudor, Henry VII, Yeomen, Alderman Gardyner, Aldermen Gardyner, Wyllyam Gardynyr, Wyllyam Gardyner, Stephen Gardiner, Eleanor Tudor, King Charles III, Charles III, HRH Charles, King Charles, King of England, King of  United Kingdom, Britain, United Kingdon, UK ]

Lord John Gardiner
 The Vice Chamberlain is responsible for many things, Security and logistics of the Royal Family are but a few, He is Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard. The Royal Bodyguard. Aldermen Gardyner's wife Etheldreda "Audrey"  Cotton, was granddaughter of Sir William Cotton, Vice Chamberlain to King Henry VI. Former Vice Chamberlain and Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard and current Senior Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords, Lord John Gardiner, Baron of Kimble..

  As we enter the digital age and the information of past generations is uploaded, it seems to be painting a picture that has been left unfinished for many generations. We live in exciting times, my friends. Even a single forgotten document, just one seemingly unimportant piece of information now scanned to the internet? Can (should) cause us to examine everything we think we thought we knew about our history.

Richard Gardiner 1429-1489

  (or Richard Gardener ) The Lord Mayor, born Exning, Suffolk say 1429 and died 19 December 1489, was married to Audrey Cotton, and was Auditor of London as well as Alderman of Queenhithe, 1469-79. Walbrook, 1479-85 and Bassishaw Wards, 1485-89. Sheriff of London, 1470 and Lord Mayor, London, 1478-79, Merchant Staple of Calais, Was also longtime Warden and Master of the Worshipful Company of Mercers of which he was their patron. Served as the Justice of the "Hansa Merchants of the Almaine" at ye house of "Guilda Aula Teutonicorum", and was the Master of the House, of "Hospital of St.Thomas de Acon". The headquarters of the Knights of "St Thomas of Acre". 

Alderman Richard Gardiner, Mayor Richard Gardiner, Sir William Gardiner, Ellen Tudor, Battle of Bosworth
 Richard Gardyner was chosen as the leader of the official delegation representing the City of London. Riding to the country and greeting his kinsman King Henry VII before they had even entered the gates of the walled city in September 1485. Richard Gardener and William Gardynyr were now riding in close proximity to Henry and Jasper as the procession entered into the city. Riding to St Paul's Cathedral a triumphant Henry hoisted three battle standards flanking each side of the Altar. Richard Gardynyr adorned in violet addressed commoners and guild
members alike at St Paul's Cathedral on 3rd of September 1485..

Richard Gardener, Alderman Richard Gardiner, Mayor Richard Gardiner,

Richard Gardiner was son of John and Isabelle Gardener of Exning, was known as Father of the City of London until his death in Dec, 1489.. He was proceeded in death by his first wife Elyn and his son Ralph as well as his brother William Gardynyr. Richard Gardyner was laid to rest next to his beloved Elyn at St Pancreas Church, on Soper Lane. The Alderman adding a complete wing to St Pancreas in order to construct a crypt dedicated to the resurrection of our Lord, In December 1489 our cities most beloved father Richard Gardener was laid to rest. His Will probated at Lambath in January 1490. 
 [Battle of Bosworth, King Richard III, Sir William Gardiner, William Gardyner, Ellen Tudor, Helen Tudor, Jasper Tudor, Henry VII, Yeomen, Alderman Gardyner, Aldermen Gardyner, Wyllyam Gardynyr, Wyllyam Gardyner, Stephen Gardiner, Eleanor Tudor, King Charles III, Charles III, HRH Charles, King Charles, King of England, King of  United Kingdom, Britain, United Kingdon, UK ]

Battle of Bosworth Commander, William Gardynyr, Ellen Tudor

Alderman Gardener traded in cots-wool and general merchandise rising to master of the Mercers Guild. Gardener and his kinsman amassed great fortunes in their family businesses. Having crown monopolies on wool, tin and coal export as well as monopolies in domestic and international commercial money lending and trade. He had personally arraigned the marriage of his now widow Ethelreda (Audrey) Cotton, to friend and Battle of Bosworth commander Sir Gilbert Talbot In June 1490. The man knighted on the field at Market Bosworth with William Gardynyr on 22nd August 1485. Providing Ethelreda a sizable dowry in cash, tenements and estates. The bulk of the Alderman's estate was however left to his daughter Lady Mary Gardiner and her husband the Alderman's ward Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath. Giles and Mary (Gardener) Alington would be 14th great grand parents to both HRH King Charles III, and the King's first as wife as Prince of Wales Diana Spencer. 
[ Battle of Bosworth, King Richard III, Sir William Gardiner, William Gardyner, Sir William Gardner, Ellen Tudor, Helen Tudor, Jasper Tudor, Henry VII, Yeomen, Alderman Gardyner, Aldermen Gardyner, Henry VIII, Mercers Guild, Earl of Oxford. Duke of Norfolk, London Mayor, City of London, Walbrook Ward, The Bank, City of London, Bassishaw Ward, Exning, Duke of Bedford, Earl of Pembroke, Cheapside London, London Mayor, Battle of Bosworth, September 3 1485, Rhy Ap Thomas, Mayor Richard Gardyner, Mayor Richard Gardener, Alderman Richard Gardiner, Jasper Tudor, John DeVere 13th Earl of Oxford, Battle of Bosworth, Sir Gilbert Talbot. Ellen Tudor, William Gardynyr, Thoams Gardiner Kings Chaplain, City of London Hisotry, London Banking Hisotry, Hisotry of London Commerce ]EXNING (Exening, Exinge, Exnyng, Exynngge, Ixenyng, Ixinge, 
Ixlinges, Ixning, Ixninge, Ixningham, Ixnyng, Ixnynge, Yxninge.)